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In 1971, Ivan Illich published a hugely influential book called, Deschooling Society, in which he envisioned "learning webs" as a model for people to network the learning they needed.The 1970s and 1980s saw notable contributions in computer-based learning by Murray Turoff and Starr Roxanne Hiltz at the New Jersey Institute of Technology (1973–77) and the Microelectronics Education Programme (1980–86).
From the early twentieth century, duplicating machines such as the mimeograph and Gestetner stencil devices were used to produce short copy runs (typically 10–50 copies) for classroom or home use.
Educational technology is the use of both physical hardware and educational theoretics.
It encompasses several domains, including learning theory, computer-based training, online learning, and, where mobile technologies are used, m-learning.
Early e-learning systems, based on computer-based learning/training often replicated autocratic teaching styles whereby the role of the e-learning system was assumed to be for transferring knowledge, as opposed to systems developed later based on computer supported collaborative learning (CSCL), which encouraged the shared development of knowledge.
Videoconferencing was an important forerunner to the educational technologies known today.